Light: 75 kg/m2 < p ≤ 125 kg/m2

The building that MAP Architects did in Borneo dock, Amsterdam, solves the envelopes in a very appropriate way at all scales.

Again, this Catalan studio proposes a clear and simple façade. The dry constructed façade is based on three layers: the main one solving air and water tightness, an inner cladding and an outer one. Someone could think the façade works properly just with the main sandwich layer – as the Courts extension in Zaragoza-. However, both claddings are needed for an improved behavior.

This hotel in Barcelona illustrates the typological confusion of contemporary façade systems, and justifies the need for a taxonomic tool such as the one that organizes this platform.

As rapidly as it has spread may disappear this resource to the double skin facade where the outer glass is patterned with a white serigraphy that gradually dilutes as it gets closer to the vision areas. It is an easy resource to blur the openings limits. An opening that, in the case of this hotel in London, is perfectly well defined over the wall in the interior skin.

This emblematic building at the London financial district is characterized by keeping its formal unity beyond the differences existing in the design of the facades depending on their orientation. Case "Devoid from human scale (034)" talks about the southwest façade of this same building.Southeast and Norwest facades call our attention due to the sobriety that confers them the enormous glazed surface, only interrupted every three floors by horizontal bands of stainless steel.

The Forum Building façade has hardly been commented, maybe eclipsed at the time it was built by some other buildings in the area, and by some other aspects of the Forum Building itself. However, after fourteen years, this risky lightweight solution has completely succeed by being integrated in the town landscape. The original electric blue has slightly turn off at the same time that a salty dust patina has added enriching nuances.

Batlle and Roig resort in this occasion to a curtain wall where partial structures are assembled at each slab front without physical continuity between them. Glass panes are then supported over those partial structures to close the façade (have a look to "Cadireta" curtain wall structure). Each two glass panes are framed with an aluminum frame made with unitized panels profiles. Is it then a unitized façade or a curtain wall one? Maybe a mixture?

The ventilated façade of the Institut Geològic de Catalunya -IGC- responds with the inner layer to the needs in terms of windows distribution that the use requires; and with the exterior, to formal aspects. The perforated corten sheet that clads the entire facade allows giving an abstract image, solving domesticity behind it. This perforated metal sheet, beyond showing a certain drawing, allows playing with transparencies, a rich composition resource possible in multilayer facades.

Years after the construction of the AC hotel in the Forum area, the one in Sants was built. The constructive solution adopted for the rain screen facade is practically the same in both cases. Again a lightweight enclosure when the use demands low thermal mass solutions.Again a reinforced frame supporting the window as the necessary structure to release an opening in this unidirectional facade structures. This frame, originally conceived to assume tolerances between the brick wall and the window, far from losing its sense gains new functions in that sort of facades.

In this case study we want to emphasize the constructive solution applied either in the facades as in the roof: an ETICS system coated with ceramic tiles. External thermal insulation construction systems have come to stay. Like the ventilated façade, these systems allow the complete continuity of the thermal insulation in front of the structure. The great difference is that, if the majority of ventilated façades clearly show the breakup due to the open joints, in the case of ETICS with a ceramic coating, the grouting permits making the joints practically imperceptible.