Light: 75 kg/m2 < p ≤ 125 kg/m2

The building that MAP Architects did in Borneo dock, Amsterdam, solves the envelopes in a very appropriate way at all scales.

As rapidly as it has spread may disappear this resource to the double skin facade where the outer glass is patterned with a white serigraphy that gradually dilutes as it gets closer to the vision areas. It is an easy resource to blur the openings limits. An opening that, in the case of this hotel in London, is perfectly well defined over the wall in the interior skin.

This emblematic building at the London financial district is characterized by keeping its formal unity beyond the differences existing in the design of the facades depending on their orientation. Case "Devoid from human scale (034)" talks about the southwest façade of this same building.Southeast and Norwest facades call our attention due to the sobriety that confers them the enormous glazed surface, only interrupted every three floors by horizontal bands of stainless steel.

Batlle and Roig resort in this occasion to a stick curtain wall where partial structures are assembled at each slab front without physical continuity between them. Glass panes are then supported over those partial structures so as to close the façade (have a look to "Cadireta" curtain wall structure). This structure system does not need that mullions keep verticality along the whole façade, and so they do; besides, Batlle and Roig show only one mullion every two glass panes.

The ventilated façade of the Institut Geològic de Catalunya -IGC- responds with the inner layer to the needs in terms of windows distribution that the use requires; and with the exterior, to formal aspects. The perforated corten sheet that clads the entire facade allows giving an abstract image, solving domesticity behind it. This perforated metal sheet, beyond showing a certain drawing, allows playing with transparencies, a rich composition resource possible in multilayer facades.

Years after the construction of the AC hotel in the Forum area, the one in Sants was built. The constructive solution adopted for the rain screen facade is practically the same in both cases. Again a lightweight enclosure when the use demands low thermal mass solutions.Again a reinforced frame supporting the window as the necessary structure to release an opening in this unidirectional facade structures. This frame, originally conceived to assume tolerances between the brick wall and the window, far from losing its sense gains new functions in that sort of facades.

In this case study we want to emphasize the constructive solution applied either in the facades as in the roof: an ETICS system coated with ceramic tiles. External thermal insulation construction systems have come to stay. Like the ventilated façade, these systems allow the complete continuity of the thermal insulation in front of the structure. The great difference is that, if the majority of ventilated façades clearly show the breakup due to the open joints, in the case of ETICS with a ceramic coating, the grouting permits making the joints practically imperceptible.

We include here RBA headquarters building not with the aim of talking about the project as a whole, an analysis that would allow us to highlight very positive aspects, but just focusing our interest on the façade. That leads us to talk about its lack of sincerity. The two longitudinal facades of the lower volume are articulated from a grid that reproduces the rhythm of the concrete structure. It is not the true "structure" that we see. The façade enclosure covers pillars and slab edges from the outside hiding them in sight.

Mecanotubo is one of the façade industries that most invested the latest 90s’ in Catalonia to give a unitary response to the rain screen façade.They wagered to adapt the stick curtain wall technology to this two layers facade. As it happens in Carburos Metalicos façade, the resulting inner sheet provides water tightness enough to consider the drainage cavity, and consequently the outer layer, unnecessary.

If the inner layer of the rain-screen façade at the Hotel AC was innovative, it was still more innovative the proposal for the neighboring office tower for the Zona Franca Consortium. Again the exterior image is a sober stone skin anchored over aluminum profiles; but on this occasion the inner layer made of boards over a steel framing was prefabricated, arriving to the site as panels.